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Marine Habitat Classification

Description of biotope or habitat type

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   Kophobelemnon fields on Atlantic upper bathyal mud

Physical habitat description

Salinity Full (30-35 ppt)
Wave exposure
Tidal streams
Substratum Mud
Zone Atlantic upper bathyal
Depth Band Biotope depth range 200 - 600 m (based on zone); assemblage recorded from 242 - 1059 m; mean 734 m
Other Features

Download comparative physical and biological data. The comparative tables enable a rapid comparison of the species composition and principal physical characteristics between a given set of biotopes.

Distribution of habitat M.AtUB.Mu.SpnMeg.KopFie <i>Kophobelemnon</i> fields on Atlantic upper bathyal mud

  • Records used to define the biotope (core records)
  • Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'certain'
  • Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'uncertain'
  • Predicted extent of the level 3 (for sublittoral rock & deep sea) or 4 (for sublittoral sediment) habitat

Point data based on records in the UK Marine Recorder Snapshot. Predicted habitat extent is from UKSeaMap.


This biotope is composed of dense aggregations of seapens of the genus Kophobelemnon (in the UK likely to be Kophobelemnon stelliferum) on mud. Kophobelemnon fields are also found in the mid bathyal zone but the associated infauna are likely to differ. Characterising species listed refer to all Kophobelemnon stelliferum assemblages not just those found associated with the zone and substrate specified in this biotope.


No situation data available.

Temporal variation

No temporal variation data available.

Characterising species

Taxon % of core records where taxon was recorded
Kophobelemnon stelliferum
Pennatula phosphorea
Flabellum chunii
Lanice conchilega
Polycheles typhlops
Grimpoteuthis umbellata

Similar biotopes or habitat types

The same epifaunal assemblage in the mid bathyal. Associated infauna may differ.

Shallower variant in the circalittoral characterised by the sea pens Virgularia mirabilis and Pennatula phosphorea.

Seapens are sparser and are generally Virgularia mirabilis.

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