Description of biotope or habitat type
Palmaria palmata on very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
Physical habitat description
|Salinity||Full (30-35 ppt)|
|Wave exposure||Very exposed, Exposed, Moderately exposed|
|Zone||Eulittoral - lower|
Download comparative physical and biological data. The comparative tables enable a rapid comparison of the species composition and principal physical characteristics between a given set of biotopes.
- Records used to define the biotope (core records)
- Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'certain'
- Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'uncertain'
Point data based on records in the UK Marine Recorder Snapshot.
Very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock which supports a pure stand of dulse Palmaria palmata as a dense band or in large patches above the main kelp zone. P. palmata favours shaded or overhanging rock and often forms a band at the top of overhanging rock. Relatively low abundance of other seaweeds, such as the red seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis or the green seaweeds Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca and Cladophora rupestris may also occur in this biotope although P. palmata always dominates. On the rock underneath the seaweed turf are the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides and the limpet Patella vulgata and the olive-green lichen Verrucaria mucosa.. Sites should only be recorded as Pal where P. palmata forms a distinct band or occurs in large patches on the shore.
This biotope is found below the biotopes dominated by the P. vulgata, S. balanoides, the wrack Fucus distichus or E. intestinalis (Sem; Fdis; Ent). It is found above biotopes dominated by the kelp Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata (Ala.Ldig; Ldig.Ldig).
It is likely that the P. palmata biotope represents an opportunistic assemblage of fast-growing species which occupy gaps within or between the canopies of long lived perennials such as the wrack Fucus serratus.
|Taxon||Relative importance of taxon for defining this community (%)||Typical abundance - SACFOR scale||% of core records where taxon was recorded|
|Semibalanus balanoides||14||Frequent||81-100 %|
|Patella vulgata||15||Frequent||81-100 %|
|Porphyra umbilicalis||6||Occasional||61-80 %|
|Palmaria palmata||37||Abundant||81-100 %|
|Enteromorpha intestinalis||3||Frequent||41-60 %|
|Ulva lactuca||6||Occasional||61-80 %|
|Cladophora rupestris||8||Occasional||61-80 %|
|Verrucaria mucosa||4||Rare||61-80 %|
Similar biotopes or habitat types
Classification history of this biotope or habitat type