Description of biotope or habitat type
Fucus spiralis on exposed to moderately exposed upper eulittoral rock
Physical habitat description
|Salinity||Full (30-35 ppt)|
|Wave exposure||Exposed, Moderately exposed|
|Substratum||Bedrock; boulders; cobbles|
|Zone||Eulittoral - upper|
|Other Features||Also on steep/vertical sheltered bedrock|
Download comparative physical and biological data. The comparative tables enable a rapid comparison of the species composition and principal physical characteristics between a given set of biotopes.
- Records used to define the biotope (core records)
- Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'certain'
- Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'uncertain'
Point data based on records in the UK Marine Recorder Snapshot.
Exposed to moderately exposed upper eulittoral bedrock characterised by a band of the spiral wrack Fucus spiralis overlying the black lichen Verrucaria maura and the olive green lichen Verrucaria mucosa. Underneath the fronds of F. spiralis is a community consisting of the limpet Patella vulgata, the winkles Littorina saxatilis and Littorina littorea, the mussel Mytilus edulis and the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The whelk Nucella lapillus can be found in cracks and crevices preying on the mussels and barnacles. During the summer months ephemeral green seaweeds such as Enteromorpha intestinalis can be common. The insect Anurida maritima can be present in this zone taking shelter in cracks and crevices when the tide comes in.
This zone usually lies below a zone dominated by the wrack Pelvetia canaliculata (PelB), but occasional clumps of P. canaliculata may be present (usually less than common) amongst the F. spiralis. FspiB occurs above the wrack Fucus vesiculosus (FvesB) zones. Vertical surfaces in this zone, especially on moderately exposed shores, often lack the fucoids and are characterised by a barnacle-limpet dominated community (Sem).
|Taxon||Relative importance of taxon for defining this community (%)||Typical abundance - SACFOR scale||% of core records where taxon was recorded|
|Semibalanus balanoides||29||Abundant||81-100 %|
|Anurida maritima||2||Occasional||41-60 %|
|Patella vulgata||8||Frequent||61-80 %|
|Littorina littorea||5||Frequent||41-60 %|
|Littorina saxatilis||9||Frequent||61-80 %|
|Nucella lapillus||2||Occasional||41-60 %|
|Mytilus edulis||5||Occasional||61-80 %|
|Fucus spiralis||24||Common||81-100 %|
|Enteromorpha intestinalis||2||Occasional||41-60 %|
|Verrucaria maura||2||Frequent||21-40 %|
|Verrucaria mucosa||2||Occasional||21-40 %|
Similar biotopes or habitat types
Classification history of this biotope or habitat type
|97.06||SLR.Fspi in part|