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4 results for 'IR.HIR.KFaR.LhypR'

   IR.HIR.KFaR.LhypR  Laminaria hyperborea with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed infralittoral rock

Very exposed to exposed infralittoral bedrock or large boulders characterised by the kelp Laminaria hyperborea, beneath which is a dense turf of foliose red seaweeds. Three variations of this biotope are described: the upper infralittoral kelp forest (LhypR.Ft), the kelp park below (LhypR.Pk) and a third type of kelp forest, confined to southern England, that is characterised by a mixture of L. hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca (LhypR.Loch). The fauna of these biotopes is markedly less abundant than kelp forests in areas of greater wave surge (LhypFa); sponges, anthozoans and polyclinid ascidians may be present, though never at high abundance. Beneath the under-storey of red seaweeds, the rock surface is generally covered with encrusting coralline algae.

   IR.HIR.KFaR.LhypR.Loch  Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca forest on exposed infralittoral rock

Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca forests on upper infralittoral exposed rock with a dense community of foliose red seaweeds such as Cryptopleura ramosa, and Plocamium cartilagineum as well as small filamentous red seaweeds including Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Heterosiphonia plumosa, Pterosiphonia parasitica and Brongniartella byssoides. L. hyperborea has a rough stipe which allow dense assemblages of epiphytic red seaweeds to form including the foliose Callophyllis laciniata, Delesseria sanguinea and Hypoglossum hypoglossoides. Unlike L. hyperborea, however, L. ochroleuca has a smooth stipe and so it lacks dense assemblages of epiphytic seaweeds L. ochroleuca has a smooth stipe. Encrusting coralline algae often cover much of the rock surface along with a few brown seaweeds including Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Desmarestia aculeata present as well. In mixed kelp forest L. ochroleuca may predominate with L. hyperborea more common at shallower depths. Whilst foliose red seaweeds dominate the upward-facing rock beneath the kelp canopy, much of the fauna is restricted to crevices or vertical faces, possibly due to grazing pressure. Echinoderms are often common in this biotope, in particular the sea urchin Echinus esculentus and the starfish Asterias rubens and Marthasterias glacialis. Verticals are colonised by anthozoans including the anthozoans Corynactis viridis, Caryophyllia smithii, Actinothoe sphyrodeta and Alcyonium digitatum, while the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea colonise the Laminaria sp. fronds. This biotope is restricted to the coast of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. L. ochroleuca occurs at low abundance in other kelp biotopes (sheltered through to exposed) from Dorset to Lundy Island. In such cases, records should be treated as regional variations of these biotopes. Records should only be assigned to the LhypR.Loch biotope when the canopy is dominated by L. ochroleuca alone, or (more usually) by a mixture of both L. hyperborea and L. ochroleuca (at similar abundance). Both this biotope and Lhyp.Loch are common on the Brittany and Normandy coasts.

   IR.HIR.KFaR.LhypR.Ft  Laminaria hyperborea forest with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed upper infralittoral rock

Very exposed to exposed upper infralittoral bedrock or large boulders characterised by a dense forest of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea. On the rock surface beneath the kelp canopy is a dense turf of red foliose seaweeds including Cryptopleura ramosa, Plocamium cartilagineum, Phycodrys rubens and Callophyllis laciniata as well as encrusting coralline algae and the foliose brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma. The red algal turf can be virtually mono-specific, dominated by stands of P. cartilagineum, C. ramosa or Heterosiphonia plumosa, Kallymenia reniformis or in the north, Odonthalia dentata. Other sites may contain a dense mixed turf of these and other species. The dense turf is due, in part, to the relatively low grazing pressure from the urchin Echinus esculentus in such shallow exposed conditions. The shallowest kelp plants are often short or stunted, while deeper plants are taller and the stipes are heavily epiphytised by red seaweeds such as Delesseria sanguinea and Membranoptera alata. The bryozoan Electra pilosa can form colonies on the foliose red seaweeds, while the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea more often can be found on the L. hyperborea fronds along with the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri and the hydroid Obelia geniculata. The gastropods Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum are found grazing among the kelp holdfasts, while a few individuals of the barnacle Balanus crenatus can present along with the white calcareous tubes of the polychaete Pomatoceros triqueter, where substratum is available. The starfish Asterias rubens can be found predating on polychaetes, mussels and small crustaceans. The soft coral Alcyonium digitatum can be present covering the rock surface as well as the anthozoan Urticina felina.

   IR.HIR.KFaR.LhypR.Pk  Laminaria hyperborea park with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock

Very exposed to exposed lower infralittoral bedrock or large boulders characterised by a kelp park of Laminaria hyperborea with a dense turf of foliose red seaweeds and encrusting coralline algae. These red seaweeds dominate kelp stipes and bedrock in a similar abundance and composition to the upper infralittoral kelp forest, the most commonly occurring species being Callophyllis laciniata, Cryptopleura ramosa, Plocamium cartilagineum, Kallymenia reniformis, Delesseria sanguinea, Phycodrys rubens, Hypoglossum hypoglossoides, Heterosiphonia plumosa and Bonnemaisonia asparagoides. In addition, moderate to high abundance of foliose brown seaweeds, such as Dictyota dichotoma are more common than in the kelp forest above. More upper circalittoral fauna occur in the park than in the kelp forest, such as the cup-coral Caryophyllia smithii. Some species more often present in the kelp park than the forest include the anthozoan Alcyonium digitatum and the featherstar Antedon bifida. The urchin Echinus esculentus, the gastropods Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum and the starfish Asterias rubens are normally present underneath the canopy along with the anthozoans Urticina felina and Corynactis viridis. The sponge Cliona celata is also present often found boring into shells or soft rock where available. The bryozoan Membranipora membranacea can be found on the L. hyperborea fronds along with the hydroid Obelia geniculata and the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. The polychaete Pomatoceros sp. is present on the rock surface.
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