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Marine Habitat Classification


Description of biotope or habitat type

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   Laminaria hyperborea park with hydroids, bryozoans and sponges on tide-swept lower infralittoral rock


Habitat (physical) description

Salinity Full (30-35 ppt)
Wave exposure Extremely exposed, Very exposed, Exposed, Moderately exposed
Tidal streams Strong (3-6 kn), Moderately strong (1-3 kn)
Substratum Bedrock and boulders
Zone Infralittoral - lower
Depth Band 5-10 m, 10-20 m
Other Features

Download comparative physical and biological data. The comparative tables enable a rapid comparison of the species composition and principal physical characteristics between a given set of biotopes.

Distribution of habitat IR.MIR.KR.LhypT.Pk <I>Laminaria hyperborea</I> park with hydroids, bryozoans and sponges on tide-swept lower infralittoral rock

  • Records used to define the biotope (core records)
  • Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'certain'
  • Other records assigned to this biotope, marked as 'uncertain'
  • Predicted extent of the level 3 (for sublittoral rock & deep sea) or 4 (for sublittoral sediment) habitat

Point data based on records in the UK Marine Recorder Snapshot. Predicted habitat extent is from UKSeaMap.

Description

Exposed to moderately wave-exposed, strongly tide-swept, rock with Laminaria hyperborea park characterised by a rich under-storey and stipe flora of foliose seaweeds such as Phycodrys rubens, Plocamium cartilagineum, Hypoglossum hypoglossoides, Kallymenia reniformis, Cryptopleura ramosa and Delesseria sanguinea. The red seaweed Heterosiphonia plumosa can be present. The foliose brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma and coralline crust are often present as well. Amongst the red seaweeds is a rich fauna comprising sponges (Pachymatisma johnstonia, Stelligera rigida, Esperiopsis fucorum and Dysidea fragilis), anthozoans (Alcyonium digitatum and Caryophyllia smithii), hydroids (Aglaophenia pluma and Nemertesia antennina), colonial ascidians (Clavelina lepadiformis and Morchellium argus) and bryozoans such as Electra pilosa. Both the flora and fauna of this biotope are similar to the wave exposed kelp park (LhypR.Pk), but LhypT.Pk has a greater faunal component including the barnacle Balanus crenatus, the echinoderm Asterias rubens and the crab Necora puber.

Situation

This biotope generally occurs below a tide-swept L. hyperborea kelp forest (LhypT.Ft). As this biotope occurs over such a range of wave exposures a variety of circalittoral biotopes can occur beneath it: for example, Exposed, tide-swept rock (FaT) or moderately exposed tide-swept rock (EcCr).

Temporal variation

Unknown

Characterising Species

Taxon Relative importance of taxon for defining this community (%) Typical abundance - SACFOR scale % of core records where taxon was recorded
Pachymatisma johnstonia 3 Occasional 41-60 %
Stelligera rigida 1 Occasional 21-40 %
Esperiopsis fucorum 1 Occasional 21-40 %
Dysidea fragilis 3 Occasional 41-60 %
Nemertesia antennina 2 Occasional 41-60 %
Aglaophenia pluma 2 Occasional 21-40 %
Alcyonium digitatum 1 Occasional 41-60 %
Caryophyllia smithii 1 Occasional 41-60 %
Balanus crenatus 2 Common 41-60 %
Necora puber 2 Occasional 21-40 %
Electra pilosa 1 Frequent 21-40 %
Asterias rubens 2 Occasional 41-60 %
Clavelina lepadiformis 1 Occasional 41-60 %
Morchellium argus 1 Frequent 21-40 %
Corallinaceae 5 Frequent 81-100 %
Kallymenia reniformis 2 Occasional 41-60 %
Plocamium cartilagineum 5 Frequent 81-100 %
Heterosiphonia plumosa 3 Frequent 61-80 %
Cryptopleura ramosa 3 Frequent 61-80 %
Delesseria sanguinea 6 Frequent 81-100 %
Hypoglossum hypoglossoides 2 Occasional 41-60 %
Phycodrys rubens 1 Frequent 41-60 %
Dictyota dichotoma 5 Frequent 61-80 %
Laminaria hyperborea 7 Frequent 81-100 %

Similar biotopes

IR.MIR.KR.Lhyp.Pk
Found in areas of similar wave exposure but not subject to accelerated tidal currents. Although similar red seaweeds dominate these kelp forests the faunal component is more conspicuous in the tide-swept biotope (higher diversity of sponges, hydroids and anthozoans).

IR.MIR.KR.LhypT
Found in similar tide-swept conditions, often forming a zone above the kelp forest (LhypT.Ft) in shallower water with higher abundance of L. hyperborea.

Photos

IR.MIR.KR.LhypT.Pk Laminaria hyperborea park with hydroids, bryozoans and sponges on tide-swept lower infralittoral rock, NE En Raonuill, South Channel, Loch Moidart. Christine Howson © JNCC
IR.MIR.KR.LhypT.Pk Laminaria hyperborea park with hydroids, bryozoans and sponges on tide-swept lower infralittoral rock, NE En Raonuill, South Channel, Loch Moidart. Christine Howson © JNCC

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